1.Still others argue that volcanic dust injected into the atmosphere shields Earth from the Sun’s rays and initiates an ice age.
The word “initiates” in the passage is closest in meaning to
2.Overexploitation is the overuse by humans of a population of organisms to an extent that threatens the viability of the population or radically alters the natural community in which it lives.
The word “viability” in the passage is closest in meaning to
▢ ability to exist
▢ rate of growth
▢ ability to change
3.This is partially disguised by the fact that we are still able to harvest huge quantities of marine species.
The word “disguised” in the passage is closest in meaning to
▢ made worse
4.The species living in rain forests must engineer their calls to accommodate all of the obstacles, such as leaf cover, that can deflect and degrade the sounds intended for a potential receiver.
To “deflect” sounds mean to change their
5.The species living in rain forests must engineer their calls to accommodate all of the obstacles, such as leaf cover, that can deflect and degrade the sounds intended for a potential receiver.
The word “potential” in the passage is closest in meaning to
1. 投射，举例：The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater (OG- Early Cinema)
2. 预测、估计：Wind power experts project that by the middle of the twenty-first century wind power could supply more than 10 percent of the world’s electricity（TPO 3-3）
Passage5: In this newly emerging economic order, workers sometimes organized to protect their rightsand traditional ways of life.Craft workers such as carpenters, printers, and tailors formedunions, and in 1834 individual unions came together in the National Trades' Union. The labormovement gathered some momentum in the decade before the Panic of 1837, but in the depression that followed,labor's strength collapsed.
The phrase gathered some momentum in the passage is closest in meaning to_______.
○ made progress
○ became active
○ caused changes
○ combined forces
解析：词组所在的文章句子中出现转折词but，根据文章中but后面的内容depression that followed（随后的萧条，低迷）,我们可以得出短语gathered some momentum在此句中的的意思为made progress（取得进步）。
Passage8: One cognitive theory suggests that aggravating and painful events trigger unpleasantfeelings. These feelings, in turn, can lead to aggressive action, but not automatically. Cognitive factors intervene. People decide whether they will act aggressively or not on thebasis of factors such as their experiences with aggression and their interpretation of otherpeople's motives. Supporting evidence comes from research showing that aggressive peopleoften distort other people's motives. For example, they assume that other people mean them harm when they do not.
The word distort in the passage is closest in meaning to________.
解析：distort所在的文章句子后出现“ for example”， 根据for example后面的句子，harm when they do not(不伤害他们)我们可以得出distort在此句中的意思为misinterpret（曲解，误解）。
Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and, since work was specialized, disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not only produced a fundamental change in the way work was organized; it transformed the very nature of work.
The word disrupted in the passage is closest in meaning to